Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.
Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online.
It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain.
Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us.
We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed.Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.We also ask that you: + Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired.Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country.