For then the mountains of the Yalais and of Savoy unveil themselves to the declining sun, and, as the mist rolls off, each snowy summit and gray pyramid flushes into soft crimson before his parting glance. The whole army, according to the lowest computation, numbered, when it n eared the scene of action, forty thousand men. He himself had said that he would rather be hated than despised. But if the time should come when, still hating, they would also despise ? His reasons for refraining would have counted for nothing with a general, confident in his own skill and in the valor of his troops. would have been suspended ; he would have seemed to himself to have become the sport of unknown chances. 12 Must we then attribute so lively an invention to the slow intellect of Frederick ? He saw, in a word, that the crisis of his reign had come. 179 the like nature he sought to soften the bad impres sion which the news might produce upon his subjects at home. For this purpose he had already despatched his chancellor to Paris, 70 and, in case his own presence should be need ed, had followed him as far as Senlis, whence he wrote to him, under date of August 23d, in these terms : " I send you a duplicate of the letters I have just re ceived from Monsieur de Saint-Pierre. Rumors of the negotiation had reached the constable and filled him with alarm. Geneva, and choose for our comparison the evening instead of the morning light, the contrast is still more striking. These with their followers constituted the cavalry, while the infantry was chiefly made up of the contin gents of sixty-eight free towns. But the effect of his parting words, and of former words which he had spoken, would remain and deep en. Otherwise, under the circumstances described in the last chapter, instead of scattering his forces, he would have hurled them in a concentrated mass on a foe so obviously at a disadvantage. Such was the account which Louis published to his people, and announced in private letters to his confidential ministers, on the authority of direct communications from the emperor to Craon and to himself. 147 to march into Lorraine ; that, instead of a revolt in Gueldres fanned by a foreign invasion, what he had to anticipate was a foreign invasion of FRANCE, which might give birth to endless revolts. His coffers being drained, and the time being so short, the money had to be raised by extraordinary expedients. Do not fail in this, that there may be no pretext for a rupture of what had been already settled." 71 Although he had no real cause for anxiety, it was the fact that an attempt was being made to cross his manoeuvres.If here and there a blackened tower or rear-wall of some ancient chateau still crowns a slope or overhangs a ravine, the restored front and embellished interior, CHAP, v.] NOBLES OF THE JURA. Under the dis couragements of the winter, Charles was not indis posed to an accommodation which might enable him to withdraw without loss of reputation. 101 gismund or Sigismund's allies, leaving his grievances, the force of which was graciously conceded, to the arbitration of the emperor. The count of Blamont, after hesitating whether to turn against the French or the Swiss, was at length relieved from doubt by the retirement of the latter. Bourbon had declined the command on the plea of ill health. haste, comme vous savez, cuidant 8 " II ne 1'entendoit point : ne trouver les Anglois prests & descen- ceulx k qui il donnoit auctorite, sur dre ; mais je trouve que 1'armee de le faict de la guerre, y entendoient mer, le jour devantque je arrivasse, encores moms." Commines, torn, s'estoit retraicte et descendue en i. If in the former quarter, the peril would be far more imminent. So it had been in the Franco-Norman invasion of England, so in all the Anglo-Norman inva sions of France. It would be best to make them an offer of some unimportant places, let them settle down quietly, and by the time the season was over they would be glad of an excuse for taking their de parture. On his return Edward was received with a roar of indignation.
The lake, like a conscious witness, trembles and burns. Pallid, yet serene, the ma jestic Alps recede into the gloom. 52 For two centuries, it was reported, there had been no such gathering of the imperial vassals. 1 Nevertheless the course which he pursued is not to be censured, but approved. Therefore he had so disposed and so employed his forces as to be still prepared for various contingen cies, secure against the derangement of his general policy, free to adopt whatever expedient the need or opportunity of the moment might suggest. But, whoever devised the story, there was one person at least who knew better than to believe it. That had happened which he had most feared, which he had chiefly struggled to avert. After so many labors, so many successes, here were Eng land and Burgundy still combined, treason and intrigue still busy, for the overthrow of the French monarchy. As to making any attempt to avert the catastrophe, to compete with Louis in the arts of seduction, the thought assuredly never crossed his mind. I thank God, Our Lady, and Monseigneur Saint Martin for the good news they contain. Of all contingencies this was the one for which he was least prepared.
But Jura, wrapping herself in a darker mantle, interposes to cut short the glowing scene. This outer barrier of the Jura, where the spurs and branches so flank and overlap each other as to pre serve a continuous front, is the highest of a succession of ridges that lie one behind another in parallel array. 53 The artille ry and the wagons were numerous beyond precedent. The troops of different states availed themselves of the opportunity for deciding their hereditary quarrels; and bloody brawls, which it was forbidden to speak of outside the camp, 54 were of daily occurrence. He lacked neither confidence nor skill ; but he had his own methods and resources, and his game was one in which military operations played a subsidiary, though im portant, part. If Charles should sink under the blows of the Empire, Louis would have only to push forward at all points and take possession of the spoils. Louis had been kept too fully and correctly informed by his ambassadors in the imperial camp not to understand the catastrophe which had occurred. Considered in relation to universal history, the wars of the English in France formed a sequel of that great Northern inundation the first ripplings of which had cast a prophetic gloom on the spirit of the dying Charlemagne. He had behaved like an outraged lover rather than a cool politician, throwing up his claim in dis gust on the proof or acknowledgment of an intended infidelity. From that day forth Edward had no stronger feeling than hatred of his brother-in-law. We must have the whole sum at Amiens before Friday evening, besides what will be wanted for private gratifications to my Lord 59 " Allegua la disposition du fort ses ayses et ses plaisirs." Cora- temps et la saison, . Had the invaders succeeded in mak ing an impression, he could still have united with them ;.
There are no distinct and towering peaks, no sweeping curves, no network of ramifications. To counterbalance this defect a high state of confidence prevailed. Had he made them his principal instrument, had he trusted to them entirely, he would have lost his control over events ; the reins would have slipped from his grasp ; his own activity 1 See the contemporary criticism to this effect in Basin, torn. Should the con test, as was more probable, be indefinitely protracted, the sharp discipline administered while there were no means of retaliation would extort a renewal of the truce and throw a fresh clog upon the English invasion. 13 He knew well that, not the Burgundians, but the imperialists, had dispersed; that not the emperor, but the duke, was preparing 12 Letter of Louis to the chan- be needed, it will be found in an- cellor, July 15, Commines, Preuves, other letter of the king's, which will torn. Many shores and many islands had been washed by that wide-spread flood ; but its fullest current had set upon the northern shore of France, whence, with collected force, it had poured its waves over the island of Britain, to return upon the Continent in successive reflux tides, that threatened to swallow all the former conquests of Frank and Goth. His burst of choler could inflict no injury on its object. Among a portion of the English nobles the effect was different. retourner a ousi peu besougnier en 68 " On ne vit onques si grande fet de gerre." Haynin, torn. had they met with a disaster, he could have joined zealously in running them down.
Each separate mountain is a segment corresponding in outline with the mass from which it is detached. All vaunted their determination to anni hilate the invader, 55 while not the slightest doubt was entertained that a large French force was advancing to join them. 2 Finally, should his adversary burst from the toils, and no resort be left but the appeal to bat tle, the king would still have his army, unimpaired and within call, to meet this emergency. It was still the old sea-pirates contending with the land-pirates, the ocean-power assaying to triumph over the Con tinent. Doubtless all the races involved in the long strug gle Celt, Frank, Saxon, Norman had gained in it a stronger discipline and a broader development. Latent sentiments of shame and discontent had been roused. " was the exclamation of many who had heard him, amongst them the duke of Gloucester. He might thus have avoided the rocks on either hand ; what he had not anticipated was a sudden fall of the tide which would leave him stranded between' them. Let him retire towards the coast, seize a few small places, such as Eu and Valery (which Louis, however, anticipating the suggestion, had already given orders to burn if any such movement were attempted), and, thus sheltered, await the result of new combinations.
The long, deep intervening valleys, and the narrow transverse gorges, where the ridges have been rent from side to side, give easy access in all directions ; and the more frequented passes have been regularly traversed from the time when the Roman power was first established over Gaul. Even before the siege was actually opened he had announced his intention to take the field in person, and had stipulated with Cologne and the other places most nearly interested for a monthly subsidy to cover his expenses. 56 Among the most fiery leaders were the archbishops of Treves and Mayence, and the 58 Letter of Panigarola to the proposed levies, which included a duke of Milan, Notizenblatt, 1856, large Swiss force, amounted to s.161. The result of his different expeditions must now be noticed. 141 pagne, and turned his attention to the western frontier of Luxembourg, where he laid siege to Damvilliers and other places. The ancient world had witnessed similar struggles, in which the land-power had triumphed over the sea-power the Macedonians over the Phoenicians, Rome over Carthage. But if we look simply at the condition of France while subject to these continual immersions, it is surely a piteous spectacle that of a nation slowly rising above the waters, slowly re-collecting its strength and resources, only to be again overwhelmed and submerged. 67 It seemed, indeed, incredible that, after such an nouncements, such preparations, the expedition should return without a single achievement or a single effort. 68 At the French court, where the possible results of an encounter had been best appreciated, the wonder was proportionally strong. He made frantic efforts to retard it, resorting to his old practices, and addressing himself simultaneously to Charles, to Louis, and to Edward. In a few weeks he would find his way open, and meanwhile, if he stood in need of money, Saint-Pol would supply him with a loan.
Four centuries ago this region was already thickly- sprinkled with habitations, one class of which has now almost disappeared. cez du due Nicolas, iusques & celuy 46 Comment le due de Lorraine du due Rene (Pont-a-Mousson, enuoya deffier le due Charles, con- 1605, 4to), p. temporary report in Legrand MSS., 100 THE LEAGUE IN OPERATION. 47 In the autumn he had issued his summonses and manifestoes. The king of Denmark, on his way back from a visit to Koine, had volunteered his services in preserving the peace of Christendom, and had spent three months in going backwards and forwards on this laudable mission. Early in May Craon had entered Franche- Comte at the north-west corner of the province, and had penetrated as far as Charriez, burning, plunder ing, and making some unimportant captures. 3 In the invasion of Burgundy there had been a delay of several weeks. terre, et habandonne la mer." Let- 144 FRENCH EXPEDITIONS. would not even know where to expect it whether in Normandy or at Calais. For the grand peculiarity, in every repetition of the movement, had been the massive force with which the blow had been delivered, and the uncertain, ineffective gallantry displayed in the resistance. When the royal council was called together, some of the members expressed their belief that the English were only concocting a ruse. He entreated the English monarch not to bq discouraged, warned him against the allurements of the cunning foe, and ad vised him as to the mode of stemming his embarrass- 71 Legrand MSS. Louis still extant that have not This is one of the few letters of been printed. 72 The message sent to Louis was an offer to assist in the negotiation of a peace. The very straits in which the English were placed might drive them to some violent remedy.
Yet, at the period of which we write, the propri etors of these domains were not the types of feudal barbarism which the grim relics of their extinct rule the high battlements, the vaulted dungeons, the yawning oubliettes might lead us to imagine them. 99 reported to have said, had done him a great honor in calling out against him the whole power of the Empire; the house of Burgundy had never before received such a mark of distinction. 48 For the duke himself this answer was sufficient. He had found it, however, no easy matter to over come the incoherence and disjointed action of the huge machine over which he presided. Close upon the frontier, in the neighbor hood of Guipy, the invaders were met by an equal force under the count of Koussy, son of Saint-Pol and marshal of Burgundy. This extreme alertness, as on former occasions, laid him or^en to deception. Dupont), Preuves, 7 " Je vois en Normandie a grant torn. The bulk of his troops, under the Sire de Beaujeu, admiral of France, he sent back to Picardy to complete the work he had himself begun, by laying waste the whole country, so that a hostile army, advancing from that side, would find nothing to feed upon. Originally the instinct that prompted the invasion had belonged only to the Norman sov ereign and the Norman nobility. They saw that he was already lost, or that, if a chance remained, he had not the nerve to grasp it. I will wait till you have been three months across the sea! He contrived a little scene in which business and pleasure were ad mirably blended. When the constable's agent, Louis de Xainville, was admitted to an audience, a screen behind the royal seat concealed two auditors of the interview, Commines and the Sire de Contay. As the territo ry around the camp belonged to Saint-Pol, there was some excuse for the depredations committed by the troops. 189 In their return through Picardy and the Bou- lognais the English paid the penalty of their former outrages on the population. He escaped, it is true, the penalties he had feared, and had no occasion to seek the asy lum which he had taken care to provide.
If less luxurious in their habits than the per fumed cavaliers who met at the costly banquets of Brussels and Bruges, they resembled still less the needy and plundering adventurers of the neighbor ing Rhineland. velut impavidus." 42 Letter to Claude du Fay, May " Constanteret perseveranter in sua 10, Labarre, torn. 43 He exhorted his troops to constancy, avowing his purpose to seek, rather than avoid, an encounter. But the royal negotiator persevered until he had learned the terms it was intended to impose. Diets had been convened and postponed ; troops had been levied and countermanded. A severe combat ensued ; the Burgundians were defeated with a loss of two thousand men; many nobles, with Roussy himself, were made prisoners. Saint-Pol, whom his successes had filled with apprehension, since, if they went on, he would himself be enveloped, and who was con sequently professing the strongest devotion to his interests, sent him word that the hostile fleet had appeared off the coast of Normandy. His instructions, so far as time allowed, were faith fully carried out. But as the Norman race became merged in the Saxon, and the Saxon na ture infused with the Norman spirit, the ambition of conquest became national and popular. The king of Scots, James the Third, saw, as he thought, an opportunity for a stroke of business on his own account. During the last few weeks he had been abandoned by his principal servants. " 64 He rushed away to Cambray, to Mons, to Na- inur, which he reached on the evening of the 22d, 65 and whence he despatched orders to the towns on the frontier to suffer no intelligence from the English army to be made public until it had been communi cated to himself. Among the Burgundian prisoners taken in the combat before Arras was the Sire de Contay, of a high family and personally distinguished. Xain ville, who had just before returned from a mission to the duke of Burgundy, began by stating its purpose and result. But their maltreatment of the Burgundian subjects who brought them their supplies, whether instigated by arrogance or by spite, was alike inex cusable and impolitic. 187 His whole army was advantageously posted along the left bank of the river, while the side on which the English made their approach presented an expanse of swamps traversed by a single causeway. Their supplies ran short, and many a straggler was found feet uppermost in the bogs. But he sank into an object of general contempt, the close of his reign was enveloped with horrors, and his dynasty was already doomed.
Indefatigable huntsmen, hospitable entertainers, lovers of good cheer, drinking plentiful ly of the common wine of the country, having their tables abundantly supplied both from the products of the chase and the contributions of their tenantry, they led in times of peace a methodical existence, driven neither by empty stomachs nor lack of ex citement to unlicensed campaigning. 44 To the electoral messengers he gave a courteous hearing, and replies in which he strove to vindicate his motives, while accepting the challenge which honor forbade him to decline. To escape the penalties of his presumption, Charles must renounce and deliver up his treaties with Ru pert, disclaim all right to interfere in the affairs of Germany, and refrain from any hostilities against Si- 47 Miiller, Reichstags Theatrum, zu tedigen noch zu demselben zedel B. The king of Hungary could not think of abandoning his alliance with Bur gundy, unless his own right to the crown of Bohemia were first conceded. The invaders then overspread the province, menacing Macon and other strong towns. 6 ^Instantly, with his whole army, the king rushed in that direc tion to find that his own fleet, which he had sent out crowded with soldiers to harass the enemy on the passage, had caught the alarm and returned to port, where the troops had been at once disem barked. From the interior frontier to the sea-line, from the Somme eastward to the fauxbourgs of Hesdin, not a village, not a blade of corn, was left standing. 145 but that of Bruges, Ghent, and Antwerp, received their chief supplies of corn. Long after the rulers of England had lost their inclination to such enterprises, the conquest of France continued to be the favorite project of the English people. He informed the French monarch that, although strongly pressed, he had refused to go shares in the enterprise. Some had resumed their allegiance to Burgundy ; the greater number, with a truer instinct, had gone over to the king. there should be no further tempting of Providence in that way. Heavy rains had set in, the precursors of a long and open autumn, though otherwise interpreted at the time. Followed by a handful of attendants, he rode back with the haste which may be imagined, and entered unannounced the royal pavilion. Edward, who sat surrounded by his nobles, would fain have avoided the storm. The king began to repeat his protestations and excuses. 60 By this precaution and others of 64 Commines, torn. He had been treated with great consideration, had been allowed to go and come on his parole, and had received the promise of an easy ransom. He had gone, as he pretended, to pro pose to Charles to abandon the English and even to cooperate in attacking them. The duke was still boiling with indigna tion at the bad faith and cowardice of his ally. 185 to the protection of Burgundy, had secured for him self a retreat at the French court and a second res toration, under French auspices. 76 No order, no precautions, were observed on the march. Had he felt the least inclination to foul play, the opportunities were abundant. He stepped upon the bridge with a dozen attendants, four of them Englishmen appointed to see that the proper precautions were observed. 80 Before embarking Edward received a final letter from Saint-Pol, written in the rage of despair and filled with reproaches more bitter even than those which, with better reason, had been uttered by the duke of Burgundy. In one sense, however, this invasion has a greater importance than any previous one. treaty, nor would the king afford them help of any kind.
The prospects of the coming vintage, or the tested qualities of a former growth, furnished the staple of gossip. At present the cantons unanimously refused to stir. Highly picturesque but contracted views wild precipices, frightful gorges, nest-like basins and grassy vales are characteristic of the one ; while the other commands a wide ex panse of lakes and hills, vineyards and towns, with distant horizons of snow-clad Alps. 97 bring himself, perhaps from the mere force of habit, to act in concert with his allies or give them the sup port which he had promised. He had made no war on the Empire or the emperor ; he too was a German prince, and in seek ing to reinstate the dethroned archbishop, was not merely fulfilling the obligations of kinship and alli ance, but upholding the common rights of the elect ors. The duke of Juliers pleaded his proximity to the enemy's states as an excuse for his neutrality. But they were not in sufficient strength for regular sieges. Blamont came to their assistance, and accepted from the council of Dijon the pro visional appointment of marshal, which was con firmed by the duke. 7 After hurrying from Harfleur to Dieppe, from Dieppe to Caudebec, and thence to other places along the coast, and finding no visible sign of the invaders, he retired in a state of uncertainty. 9 In the interval between the two raids that of the king himself and this later one Charles's lieutenant, the count of Romorit, had re- occupied the devastated region, and had even begun to retaliate on the adjoining French districts. 10 Intimations had been sent to Louis by a woman of rank one of the secret agents whom he maintained in all the cities of the Netherlands that the capture might be effected by treachery and a surprise. Whatever symp toms of wavering loyalty may have existed among the citizens disappeared before the spectacle of their blazing harvests and granaries. The last invasion, in 1415, had led to the forma tion of an Anglo-Burgundian alliance. He would undertake, for the modest fee of ten thousand crowns, to frustrate the whole design. The royal arms had opened to enclasp the constable himself. " He shall have any other oath he pleases ; but that I will never again take to living man." 40 It did not follow that any perfidy was intended. The consequent discomforts, coupled with the late rebuff, produced their usual effect upon raw troops, who need the excitement of action or the encourage ment which an enterprising commander knows how to inspire. He has tened to inquire whether his dearest brother would not prefer a private interview. He was interrupted by a flood of invective, delivered in English in order that it might be understood by all, and rendered, doubtless, more forcible and pungent by the foreign accent. The king in fact intended to use him as a medium for reopen ing negotiations with Charles as soon as the present squall should have blown over. These particulars, whether believed N or not, were listened to with so much interest that the envoy, charmed at the opportunity of creating a favorable impression, was induced to give a dramatic form to his narrative. I begin to grow a little deaf." The repetition thus called for was given in a higher key and with additional touches. And yet in the very instrument in which he stooped to this acknowl edgment of his danger and dependence, he still adhered to the empty pretensions on which his en terprise had been founded, arrogating to himself the title of " King of France and England," and leaving to the monarch whose pensionary he had become and whose favor he was soliciting the vague designation of " the illustrious prince, Louis of France." In order to confer some eclat on the arrangement and cover up its true character as much as possible, it was agreed that the sovereigns should meet at the head of their respective forces and exchange the rati fications in person. Their leaders, Edward himself, had lost all authority over them. Edward, with a like company, met him at the barrier. In the present instance he had the means of revenge within reach. The very base ness and ludicrousness in which it expired mark the change of times. 18 There was no express mention of the duke of Lorraine ; but an article of somewhat ambiguous wording was evidently meant to apply to his case.
A w T ell-thumbed copy of Launcelot, its illuminated pages brightening under a tallow light, whiled away a lone ly evening. In all this we do not consider the Swiss as charge able with duplicity, except in so far as double speak ing and double acting were necessary results of the position in which they were placed. 75 then ascending the valley of the Orbe the widest as well as the most conveniently situated of all the passes it crosses the watershed and joins the first- mentioned route in the mountain gateway of La Cluse, which offers the only passage in this part of the chain to the western slopes and the plain beyond. The Yal de Tra- vers is seen perhaps to most advantage when the moonlight has lent an additional weirdness to its jag ged walls and mysterious hollows. But he ordered an immediate advance of all the forces which he kept constantly posted on the frontiers. 45 The defiance of Lorraine touched him more nearly. The elector palatine boldly pro claimed that his sympathies as well as his interests lay on the opposite side. The people of Treves, having tasted the munificence of the Burgundian court and experienced the good effects of the Burgundian disci pline, had shown ever since a strong desire to culti vate Charles's friendship. A levy en masse took place ; and the French, in danger of being surrounded, fell back into the Nivernais, whence they were soon after summoned into Normandy. He had with him an overwhelming force, including a powerful artillery. Every soul found in it, with one exception, that of a traitor, was hung, and the place itself utterly destroyed. One thing he saw plainly, that in matters pertaining to the marine his own ignorance was great and that of his naval commanders still greater. Being too weak to keep the field in face of the royal forces, he now retired to Arras, calling in the neighboring nobles and the peasantry, as well to aid in the defence of this important city as for their own pro tection. It was a sight which had never been witnessed by those of the existing generation, taught to contrast their own condition with that of their neighbors and to consider them selves the favored of Providence. In 1475 it was the Anglo-Burgundian alliance that led to the invasion. This he could effect, either by a counter-invasion of England, or through a secret trea ty with Edward, who was merely urged along by popular clamor, and who could easily be persuaded to desist, if proper inducements were held out, and a promise given him of armed assistance in case an internal rebellion should follow on the rupture of his engagements with Burgundy. Every day had brought a fresh message, pressing in vitations, ample assurances, promises of compensation for any losses he might sustain. But Saint-Pol could re gard the refusal in no other light. duke at a distance, the English not yet come, his open adhesion would have been premature, depriving him of opportunities for gathering intelligence and for serving as a medium of negotiation. And had not the English a commander who surpassed all others in activity and enterprise ? for this was not the same Edward whom we have seen in other fields, swift in the search, irresisti ble in the shock. Breathless and ab sorbed, Charles scarcely heard him. He was bitterly taunted with his lack of honor and good faith. One main feature in any future truce must be a provision for disposing 72 Commines, torn. He imitated Charles's voice and gestures, stamped the ground, swore by Saint George, and talked of the up start Englishman, calling him " Blackburn," in allusion to a well-known piece of scandal. Nothing, in fact, could be more genuine than his enjoyment, for he was laughing at as well as with the performer. Behind the screen, Contay was bursting with suppressed rage ; while Louis, doubly amused, laughed till the tears ran down. But let it not be put to hazard by a premature dec laration ! 75 Picquigny on the Somme, three leagues below Amiens, was fixed upon as the spot. When they came in front of Amiens, they flocked across the bridges as if they had been disbanded in the neigh borhood of their homes. After cordial greetings, in which Louis declared with truth that there was no man in the world whom he had so much desired to meet, a missal and a piece of the True Cross were produced, and the bishop of Lincoln administered the oath for the observance of the treaty. He enclosed the letter, with others of an earlier date from the same hand, to the French king. It was as if chivalry and the Middle Ages had made their exit leaving a foul odor behind. The duke of Burgundy was empowered to transport troops at all times between the Netherlands and his southern provinces by whatever route he might him self select.